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    发表于 2018-8-16 18:03:46 160 浏览 0 回复

    Research Procedures - 7 Steps

    Research Procedures - 7 Steps
    Step 1: Identify the Problem
    Most often it is found that incorrectanswers (e.g., regarding the proper way to report revenue-producing activities)flow from improper definition of the actual question to be resolved. Considerthe following:
    §  Gain anunderstanding of the problem or question.
    §  Challenge thetentative definition of the problem and revise, as necessary.
    §  Problems andresearch questions can arise from new authoritative pronouncements, changes ina firm's economic operating environment, or new transactions, as well as fromthe realization that the problem had not been properly defined in the past.
    §  If proposedtransactions and potential economic circumstances are anticipated, moredeliberate attention can be directed at finding the correct solution, andcertain proposed transactions having deleterious reporting
    consequences might be avoided altogether or structured morefavorably.
    §  If little isknown about the subject area, it may be useful to consult general referencesources to become more familiar with the topic, that is, the basic what, why,how, when, who, and where. Web-based research vastly expands the ability togather useful information.
    §  Ensure that theissue you are researching is a GAAP issue or is an auditing issue so that yoursearch is directed to the appropriate literature.

    Step 2:Analyze the Problem
    §  Identify critical factors, issues, andquestions that relate to the research problem.
    §  What are the options? Brainstorm possiblealternative accounting treatments.
    §  What are the goals of the transaction? Arethese goals compatible with full and transparent disclosure and recognition?
    §  What is the economic substance of thetransaction, irrespective of the manner in which it appears to be structured?
    §  What limitations or factors can affect theaccounting treatment?

    Step 3:Refine the Problem Statement
    §  Clearly articulate the critical issues ina way that will facilitate research and analysis.

    Step 4:Identify Plausible Alternatives
    §  Plausible alternative solutions are basedupon prior knowledge or theory.
    §  Additional alternatives may be identifiedas Steps 5–7 are completed.
    §  The purpose of identifying and discussingdifferent alternatives is to be able to respond to key accounting issues thatarise out of a specific situation.
    §  The alternatives are the potential methodsof accounting for the situation from which only one will ultimately be chosen.
    §  Exploring alternatives is importantbecause many times there is no single cut-and-dried financial reporting solutionto the situation.
    §  Ambiguity often surrounds manytransactions and related accounting issues and, accordingly, the accountant andbusiness advisor must explore the alternatives and use professional judgment indeciding on the proper course of action.

    Step 5evelop a Research Strategy
    §  Determine which literature to search.
    §  Generate keywords or phrases that willform the basis of an electronic search.
    §  Consider trying a broad search to:
              Assist in developing an understandingof the area,
              Identify appropriate search terms,and
              Identify related issues andterminology.
    §  Consider trying very precise searches toidentify whether there is authoritative literature directly on point.

    Step 6: Search Authoritative Literature
    This stepinvolves implementation of the research strategy through searching,identifying, and locating applicable information:
    §  Research published GAAP.
    §  Research using Wiley GAAP.
    §  Research other literature.
    §  Research practice.
    §  Use theory.
    §  Find analogous events and/or concepts thatare reasonably similar.

    Step 7:Evaluation of the Information Obtained
    §  Analyze and evaluate all of theinformation obtained.
    §  This evaluation should lead to thedevelopment of a solution or recommendation. Again, it is important to rememberthat Steps 3–7 describe activities that will interact with each other and leadto a more refined process in total, and a more complete solution. These stepsmay involve several iterations.



    Internet-BasedResearch Sources
    There has been and continues to be aninformation revolution affecting the exponential growth in the volume of materials,authoritative and nonauthoritative, that are available on the Internet. Alisting of just a small cross-section of these sources follows:
      
    Accounting  Websites
      

    AICPA Online
    www.aicpa.org
    Includes the Financial Reporting  Center for accounting and assurance information and resources; CPE  information; Professional Ethics and Peer Review releases and information;  information on relevant congressional/executive actions; online publications,  such as the Journal of Accountancy; also has links to other organizations; includes links to standard-setting  bodies and their authoritative standards for nonissuers including auditing  standards, attestation standards, and quality control standards
    FASB
    www.fasb.org
    Information on FASB; Access to the  Codification and ASUs, Project Status reports with EDs, research papers, and  meeting notes; webcasts
    FASB  Codification
    asc.fasb.org/home
    Database using the accounting  Codification; includes cross-referencing and tutorials
    GASB
    www.gasb.org
    Information on GASB; new GASB  documents; summaries/status of all GASB statements; proposed Statements;  Technical Bulletins; Interpretations
    International  AccountingStandards Board (IASB)
    www.ifrs.org
    Information on the IASB; lists of  Pronouncements, Exposure Drafts, project summaries, and conceptual framework
    PCAOB
    www.pcaobus.org
    Sections on rulemaking, standards  (including the auditing, attestation, quality control, ethics, and  independence standards), enforcement, inspections and oversight activities
    SEC
    www.sec.gov
    SEC digest and statements; EDGAR  searchable database; information on current SEC rulemaking

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